Basics of HVAC system. In this post I will answer some questions related to HVAC system.

Like,

what is COP and **how to calculate COP** ? and **relationship between EER power and COP** ?

At the end of this post we would have our answers.

HVAC Equipment used in cooling systems in residential and small commercial buildings often express the **cooling system**. To know the efficiency of cooling system, there are terms like, EER, SEER

Where,

EER = Energy Efficiency Ratio and/or

SEER = Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio

For air conditioners in rooms it is common to use EER = Energy Efficiency Ratio.

For central air conditioner systems it is more common to use SEER = Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio.

HVAC systems

These ratings are normally posted on the Energy Guide Label attached to all new air conditioners.

Some air conditioner manufacturers participates in the voluntary Energy Star labeling program where the Energy Star label indicates higher EER and SEER ratings.

EER – Energy Efficiency Ratio

EER is a measure of how efficient a cooling system operates in steady state (over time) when the outdoor temperature is at a specific level (outdoor conditions commonly used are 95 oF (35 oC)).

The higher EER – the more energy efficient is the system

EER can be calculated as following

EER = qc / E

where,

qc = output cooling energy (Btu)

E = input electrical energy consumption (watt-hours, Wh)

EER is common for room air conditioners ranging 5000 – 15000 Btu per hour (1.5 kW – 4.5 kW).

1 Btu/h = 2.931×10-4 kW = 0.0299 kpm/s = 0.252 kcal/h = 3.986×10-4 hk = 3.939×10-4 hp = 0.2163 ft lb/s

In mild climates air conditioners with EER of at least 9.0 should be selected. In hotter climates air conditioners with EER above 10 should be selected.

Note that EER is sometimes erroneous based on cooling power and electrical power consumption as

EER power = Pc / Pw

where,

Pc = output cooling power (Btu/h)

Pw = input electrical power consumption (W)

SEER – Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio

SEER – Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio – can be calculated

SEER = Qc / E

where

Qc = seasonal cooling energy (Btu)

E = seasonal electrical energy consumption (Wh)

SEER should be at least 10 – there are units where SEER reach at least 17.

Example – EERpower vs. COP

A cooling unit operates at 1 ton cooling (1 ton/kW) – or 12000 Btu/h.

The Energy Efficiendy Ratio EERpower can be calculated as

EERpower = (12000 Btu/h) / (1000 W)

= 12

Coefficient of Performance – COP – can be calculated as

COP = Pc / Pw (3)

where,

COP = Coefficient of Performance

Pc = output cooling power (Btu/h, W)

Pw = input electrical power consumption (Btu/h, W)

Since 1 kW = 3512 Btu/h – COP for 1 ton cooling can be calculated as

COP = (12000 Btu/h) / ((1 kW) (3412 Btu/h / kW)

= 3.52

A small cooling unit operating at 1 ton per kW (1000 watts) is equivalent to a COP of 3.52 or an EERpower of 12.

The **relationship between EER power and COP** can be expressed as

EERpower = 12 / 3.52 COP

= 3.41 COP

COP is the energy efficiency term used in HVAC system

In this post I have explained how to calculate cooling tower tonnage